Engineering Advancements in Canada

By Adriana Noton

Canadian engineers have had a long history of making astounding advancements in the field of engineering. There have been many engineering developments that have improved the quality of life of people around the world and have led to important discoveries. Listed below are just a few of the major engineering advancements in Canada.

The Electron Microscope: In April of 1938, two graduate students and their supervisor, Department Chairman, Professor E.F. Burton from the Physics Department of the University, built the first transmission magnetic electron microscope. Researchers were eventually able to see into inner space and learn important and valuable information about the universe. Research in mathematics has assisted in this as well.

The Pacemaker: At the Banting and Best Institute Laboratory in Toronto, Dr. John Hopps, an electrical engineer and National Research Council researcher, along with two physicians, Dr. William Bigelow and Dr. John Callaghan, developed the ability to cause the heart to beat, which included the ability to decrease the heart rate. They did this by applying an electrical pulse. What emerged from this remarkable development was the creation of the first pacemaker in 1950. In 1957, the first small pacemaker was implanted into a man from Sweden. The origins of this remarkable medical device came from brilliant Canadian engineers and physicians and have saved millions of lives all over the world.

FP-6000 Computer: One of the first computers that used an operating system and performed a variety of functions was developed in Canada. The FP-6000 computer was developed in 1961. When designers from Toronto's Ferranti-Packard Company assisted with moving computers from university laboratories into office buildings, it was the FP-6000 computer that was used.

The Ballard Fuel Cell: Another remarkable Canadian engineer development, the Ballard Fuel Cell, can use different types of fuels such as gasoline, hydrogen, natural gas, and methanol. Fuel cells have enough power to run a vehicle. The only by-products from the fuel cell's electrochemical reaction are water vapor and heat. As well, these cells run continuously as long as they have fuel.

The Canadarm: One of Canada's most renowned engineering accomplishments, the Canadarm, is able to capture a free-flying payload in an environment where there is no gravity. The Canadarm has never failed and has been used to help build the international space station, break ice off the fuselage of the Orbiter, and assist in the repair of the Hubble Space Telescope.

Compact Discs (CDs): Canadian engineers have made a significant contribution to the music industry. Canada makes the compact discs that are used by about 90% of all recorded North American music, video, and software.

The Alouette Satellite: In September 1962, the Canadian made Alouette Satellite was the first satellite launched into space making it the first launched satellite to be built by a country other than the USSR and the US.

Radio Broadcasting: On Christmas Eve, in 1906, Canadian, Reginald Fessenden, made an important historical achievement by making the world's first radio broadcast using his invention called the radio telephony.

The above engineering advancements are just a few of the many Canadian accomplishments in the field of engineering. For years, engineering developments have impacted the field of science, medicine, technology, and much more. The outlook looks promising for Canadian engineers and their future engineering achievements. - 30681

About the Author:

Space Astronomy, The Study Of Outer Space

By Dale Smith

First off, the general word astronomy is the study of outer space and everything in it to the last detail. In order to study all that mass it has to be broken down into separate categories. These are just a few types of space astronomy. Some of the different types include planetary, solar, stellar, and galactic. Understanding the different types of astronomy might give you a basic knowledge of how things are broken down in the universe.

Planetary astronomy is the study of planets both inside and outside of our galaxy. It also studies the moons and the processes that formed these planets within our solar system.Theories on the formation of these planets include computer simulation and modeling by mathematical or physical means. Other forms of study include visiting the planets and collecting specimens by electronic robotic vehicles or space exploration. Comets, asteroids, dwarf planets and other icy satellites are also studied by planetary astronomers.

Solar astronomy studies only the sun and like stars, but because we can only research it from a distance, we are extremely limited on what we can learn. The sun is yet to be entirely understood, but is a major part of our universe. Every time the sun makes changes whether slight or significant it can and usually does affect the earth. Studying stars from birth to supernova, studying the gas storms, heat fluctuations and radiation from the sun is focused in this area of science.

Stellar, unlike solar which studies the sun, is primarily focused on the stars and while trying to keep things basic and easily readable there are two main categories for studying them. The first, Observing, is usually done by observing the stars through high powered telescopes and photographs to understand the color and intensity of the radiation coming from stars. The second, theoretical, is the practice of creating models based on information and specific phenomena that is already none about stars then formulating theories based on those models. Instruments used to study wavelengths, stellar flare, and high temperature plasmas are some other related ways of learning about stars.

Galactic astronomy is focused on our own Milky Way Galaxy and includes the study of everything inside including nebulae, stars, stellar clusters and dust. While this specifically is the study of the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy is focused on all other galaxies besides or own. Our own solar system is at home inside the Milky Way and is the most studied and understood, mostly because its closer and therefore easier to study. Due to scientific inventions, we have now mapped some areas of gas and dust clouds within our galaxy that were not possible before from limitations. There are many subcategories to galactic astronomy, but perhaps those will be saved for a future article.

There are many different areas inside of space astronomy. The only way to fully understand all the components that make up this huge universe is to break up astronomy into different areas of study. Our vast universe consists of stars, galaxies, a massive gas ball known as the sun, comets and hundreds of planets. We can learn a lot about our own planet and the future we have here on earth from studying all these different attributes of astronomy. - 30681

About the Author:

Fly Fishing Calendar

By Owen Jones

Are you wondering what the best times to try to plan a fly fishing trip are? Well, when we talk about a fly fishing calendar, we are not quite referring to a printed calendar that you can hang on your wall. We are talking about focusing on and specifying the right times to fish and the right places at which to fish.

The main thing you need to think about when you are considering drawing up a fly fishing calendar is: when will the water be at the right temperature? That is, the temperature that is best for catching fish. The right time to go fishing will depend on the region that you are looking at for your fly fishing trip.

In some places, like California, the fishing is very good all the year round. Whereas in other locations, such as Washington, you will need to avoid the water in the winter as the cold temperatures will stress the fish and they will not be as plentiful.

Generally speaking, the fly fishing calendar shows that the best fly fishing is in the spring and summer months. Early fall will also find some places showing good fishing as well. Almanacs can be helpful to steer you towards the best fishing times and locations as can continuously updating Internet web sites that are run by dedicated local fishermen.

Many locations will give weekly, and sometimes even daily fishing reports on their websites. They can tell you where the fish are biting and where the best places in the river are to cast your line. They generally keep these areas of their web sites up-to-date fairly regularly. So you can get excellent reports just by looking at what other anglers have to say about their fishing experiences.

Usually, fish like warmer water, although, there are other species like salmon and steelhead that flourish in colder water. However, in general, warm water will attract more fish. Nevertheless, if the water is too warm, the fish will be sluggish and will navigate to locations where the water is cooler.

The fly fishing calendar employed most often by experienced anglers has been compiled over a lengthy period of time. They expend a considerable quantity of effort to estimate where and when the best fishing will take place. Then they share it with others. That is one of the best things about fly fishing - the comradeship and the sharing that can come about because of a mutual love for the sport of fly fishing.

You can create your own fly fishing calendar with a little time and effort. Just do your homework and keep plenty of notes. When you see a trend, you will know that it is time to go fishing! Then you should be certain to help your fellow anglers by passing on the information via a local club or the Internet, if you are proficient at it, because others will be trying to work out what you already know. You know that most fly fishermen would do the same for you, do you not? - 30681

About the Author:

The Benefits Of Warehouse Shelving For Industrial Application

By Adriana Noton

Warehouse shelving is considered a necessity for wholesalers or retailers, who routinely use heavy duty metal shelves to store stock safely. Often, however, the value of a good shelving system is overlooked when it comes to industrial application.

In an industrial environment, there are often many different types of parts that must be kept easily accessible. Small items, such as screws and washers, are often a problem to store, as are large components like engines. Many times there is also a collection of specialized tools, seldom used but which still need to be conveniently located.

Production rates suffer if employees must waste time to search for tools or components. Physical inventories are slow and often erroneous. Yet warehouse shelving is often ignored in an industrial application. Pallets may be piled high with an assortment of parts. Tools may be in unlabelled cardboard boxes. When something is needed, it is necessary for the employee to sort through collections of miscellaneous and unrelated items to find it.

Metal shelving systems keep inventory safe, clean, and organized. The aisles are easier to keep clear, eliminating trip hazards. Employees are no longer subjected to bending over pallets to find an item or having to lift heavy items in an unsafe manner. The need to reorder parts becomes more obvious, preventing potential production down time due to lack of materials.

Whatever the environment, shelves are available to suit. A company that uses a lot of different styles and sizes of nails or screws can find units to hold bins that will keep each style sorted and easily accessed. Units with tilted shelves and hooks can make storage of metal beams a breeze. And if the need is to store full pallets, there are shelves that can handle that, too. Specialized shelving units can be custom made, but with the array of standard inserts available, there is seldom any need.

Industrial warehouse racking units are available in a wide range of shelf styles. Plain, flat metal shelves are the most common, but wire mesh is also available. They can also be found with rubber covered shelves to cushion items. Inserts such as bins and drawers are also available, as well as locking doors. Custom shelving units can be designed, but are seldom needed due to the wide range of accessories available.

The least expensive and most common style of industrial shelf is open on all sides, but they can also be found with panels on the back or sides. Heights can be as short as three or four feet or as tall as seven. The width of the shelves can vary from about ten inches up to about 48. In warehouses with a high ceiling, mezzanine shelves can turn wasted space into storage. These high rise shelf units are normally accessed by rolling stairs and often have connecting catwalks.

Even medium quality metal shelving will last for a number of years. A quick dusting and occasional wipe with soap and water will keep them clean. They shrug off the effects of sunlight and humidity without rusting. After years of rough use, they may need their paint touched up in places, but beyond that they are virtually indestructible.

For years, companies have realized the benefits of using metal shelves to store finished product and storage boxes. Manufacturers are now beginning to take note of their advantages and to expand the use of warehouse shelving for industrial application. - 30681

About the Author:

Minor Holidays And Occasions In The USA

By Owen Jones

Hereunder is a directory of minor holidays and occasions in the United States. Some of them are virtually unknown, and others are quite obscure.

April Fools' Day - (April 1): the day for practical jokes (only before noon in the UK). Its origins are obscure, but it bears a similarity to an ancient Roman festival for the goddess of nature.

Arbor Day - (last Friday in April): devoted to trees and their preservation. It is held on December 22 everywhere else in the world.

Armed Forces Day - (third Sunday in May): a day to honour the US armed forces.

Citizenship Day - (September 17): replaced Constitution Day in 1952 by presidential proclamation.

Daylight-Saving Time: was first suggested by Benjamin Franklin in 1784, but became the Uniform Time Act in 1966. It is not observed in Hawaii, the Eastern Time Zone of Indiana, most of Arizona (except on the Navajo Reservation), American Samoa, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and Guam.

Election Day - (Tuesday after the first Monday in November): presidential elections are held in years divisible by four and elections for all members of the House of Representatives and one-third of the Senate in years evenly divisible by two.

Fathers' Day - (third Sunday in June): was first observed in West Virginia in 1908, but this uniquely American holiday was not made official until 1972.

Flag Day - (June 14): was first celebrated in 1877, which was the centenary of the adoption of the modern design. Truman passed the Flag Day Bill in 1949.

Groundhog Day - (February 2): on this day the groundhog looks out of his burrow. If he sees his own shadow there will be six weeks of Winter to follow, otherwise Spring is just around the corner.

Halloween - (October 31): All Hallow's Eve is the day before the feast of All Saints. It began as a pagan custom honouring the dead and a celebration of Autumn. 'Trick or Treat' is purely American with no historical foundation.

Kwanzaa - is a secular observance by African-Americans to commemorate their African heritage. It begins on Dec.26th when a candle in a candelabrum is lit every day for seven days. It was first practiced by Maulana Karenga in 1966.

Mothers' Day - (second Sunday in May): was conceived by Anne M. Jarvis of Philadelphia as a way for children to pay homage to their mothers. It received presidential proclamation in 1914.

National Maritime Day - (May 22): was initiated in 1935 to commemorate the SS Savannah's first successful transatlantic voyage by a steamship in 1819. It is also a day of remembrance of merchant mariners who died in defense of their country.

National Teachers' Day - (Tuesday of the first full week in May): is when students are meant to honour the teaching profession.

St. Patrick's Day - (March 17): has been borrowed from Ireland where it is their national saint's day.

St. Valentine's Day - (February 14): was originally to honour two saints martyred by Emperor Claudius (214 - 270), but has been dedicated to lovers since the Middle Ages.

Susan B. Anthony Day - (February 15): Anthony (1820 - 1906) worked for women's rights and suffrage.

United Nations' Day - (October 24): commemorates the endorsement of the UN Charter in 1945 by the then five permanent members of the Security Council. - 30681

About the Author:

Alpen Optics Provides Visual Products For Many Outdoor Needs

By Dale Smith

Commanding a state-of-the-art manufacturing facility, all of Alpens customers have been extremely happy with products purchased from this American company. They have proven to be reliable and dependable with exceptional clarity and comfort. All of the products are made specifically for each category that they are intended including sport optics, bird watching, hunting, competition shooting or archery and even have accessories for digital photography. They carry a full line of binoculars, Scopes (spotting and rifle), monoculars and more.

If you are an avid hunter, bird watcher, or just an outdoorsman you might consider looking into the scopes and binoculars offered by Alpen Optics. As a hunter, it is nice to be able to spot a deer or bear from far away. Hunting with a rifle requires a nice rifle scope like the Apex line that Alpen makes. You need precision in your aim and a good visual. If you like to practice bird watching then a nice set of binoculars is key to getting up close and personal without being too close at all. Even if you aren't hunting but you just love the outdoors, you would enjoy a nice set of binoculars or a monocular that allows you to see so much more at great distances.

Alpen provides a great selection of visual products including scopes and monoculars. Monoculars are light weight and easy to transport with sizes ranging from 8x21 to 10x32. Alpen spotting scopes are fog proof, water proof, nitrogen filled and shock-resistant. Equipped with powerful zoom eyepieces, an extendable sun shade and straight or 45-degree models, Alpen spotting scopes are built to last.

Choosing quality is imperative when it comes to any type of outdoor equipment. Alpen's six categories of binoculars including sport compact and their Pink series for breast cancer awareness should make choosing that perfect set a breeze. Alpens top of the line "Rainier" have been compared along with the foremost binoculars in the market place. They boast a magnesium body, nitrogen filled with multi-coated lenses and many other extras. They also offer the best optical and mechanical craftsmanship currently available today. Having a pair of binoculars that can withstand the harsh elements of mother nature and will always perform at there best is imperative.

Many of the products are waterproof and built to withstand any type of weather condition with rubber armoring and completely sealed waterproof components. BAK4 glass for clarity, multi-coated and PXA coating for ultimate resolution and fidelity. A few more advantages are twist lock eye cups, tripods and soft or hard carrying cases. Alpen makes an annual donation to support breast cancer research and has a limited lifetime warranty on all products. Consumers are pleased with all 70 items that Alpen optics creates as their number one choice. - 30681

About the Author:

How To Divide Garbage To Minimize The Landfill

By Adriana Noton

In most communities, reducing, reusing, and recycling waste has become a standard practice to minimize the amount of garbage going into landfills. Sorting your waste will often depend on the recycling program in your community. Most have guidelines published for residents. There are general guidelines, though.

Sorting garbage can reduce the impact on landfill by about 75%. The first step is to separate the organic/food waste from all the other garbage. That means anything that has grown; vegetable matter, meat, yard waste, tea bags, coffee grounds, eggshells and table scraps. These materials are all compostable, and many communities use the compost for plants and trees by roadsides and in town gardens, and sometimes sell the compost to home gardeners. It is also possible to compost in your own backyard. Compost bins are easy to construct, and once you have good compost up and running, it practically takes care of itself.

The next category of garbage is the bottles, tin foil and cans. This might include juice and milk cartons, plastic bags, bubble wrap, rigid plastic packaging. These items should be rinsed before sorting. They can all be diverted from landfill and sent for recycling. Old tires and building materials can also be diverted from landfill for recycling. Recycling equipment is used to help process these materials. Some of the products being made from these recyclables are floor tiles, road surfaces, sandals, swings, carpeting, plastic furniture and many other imaginative and creative products.

Paper and cardboard is the other broad category. This would include cardboard boxes that food such as cereal comes in. It would also include newspapers, letters and envelopes, toilet paper rolls, and any other dry clean paper product. Boxes should be flattened to minimize the bulk and making the pick-up more efficient. Paper and paper products are recycled into paper and paper products. There is an increasing demand for recycled paper from consumers and companies. The process is kinder to the environment, and calls for fewer trees to be felled for paper. Landfills are filling up across the continent. By removing those items that can be recycled - paper, cardboard, glass, wood, organic matter - we reduce the impact on landfill sites. We also minimize the impact of landfill seepage into the water table. Making our garbage as small as possible reduces our imprint on the planet, and extends the life and health of our landfills.

When organic matter ends up in a landfill, the normal breakdown into nutrients does not occur, because the fill is packed so tightly that air does not circulate around the decaying matter. Rather than return nutrients to the earth, organic matter under those conditions produces methane, which contributes to global warming. Landfills become clogged with items that will never degrade, such as plastics. In the manufacturing process, petroleum, the primary element of plastics, is altered so that it is not recognized by the bacteria and enzymes that break down matter to its reusable form. Removing these products from landfill and sending them off to be reused is a more efficient way of handling the resources that are in limited supply. There are other products that may degrade naturally if exposed to sunlight, but that also is unlikely in a heavily packed landfill. Again, removing those items from that stream, and sending them to new uses through recycling saves energy, resources and the health of the planet. - 30681

About the Author:

Sign Up for our Free Newsletter

Enter email address here